Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism

Protective Factors

Agriculture and Food
In general, insoluble fibers increase fecal bulk and the excretion of bile acids and decrease intestinal transit time i. Dyspepsia , cardiac arrhythmias , birth defects. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition. In two meta-analyses, soluble fibers, including barley, oats, psyllium, and pectin, had no significant impacts on triglyceride concentrations [ ]. For humans, a healthy diet includes preparation of food and storage methods that preserve nutrients from oxidation, heat or leaching, and that reduce risk of foodborne illnesses. List Medica sativa Lam.

Beta Glucan: Health Benefits in Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome

Bariatric surgery, safety and type 2 diabetes [review] [published online ahead of print October 2, ]. Gastric banding or bypass? A systematic review comparing the two most popular bariatric procedures. National trends in use and outcome of laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding [published online ahead of print August 19, ]. Surg Obes Relat Dis. Seven cases of gastric perforation in Roux-en-Y gastric bypass patients: Nutritional deficiencies following bariatric surgery: Noncompliance with behavioral recommendations following bariatric surgery.

Prevalence of iron, folate, and vitamin B12 deficiency after laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass [published online ahead of print January 23, ]. Dietary supplement fact sheet: Nutritional consequences of adjustable gastric banding and gastric bypass: Reversible peripheral neuropathy induced by vitamin B12 deficiency [in French] [published online ahead of print January 25, ].

Iverson D, McKenzie M. Neurologic complications of gastric bypass surgery for morbid obesity [letter]. Nutritional and metabolic complications of bariatric surgery [review]. Am J Med Sci. Oh R, Brown DL.

Vitamin B12 deficiency [review]. Dietary intake pattern relates to plasma folate and homocysteine concentrations in the Framingham Heart Study. Accessed September 9, Sensitivity of serum methylmalonic acid and total homocysteine determinations for diagnosing cobalamin and folate deficiencies. Diagnostic value of the mean corpuscular volume in the detection of vitamin B12 deficiency [review].

Scand J Clin Lab Invest. Folate intake and food sources in the US population. Am J Clin Nutr. Role of folic acid in atherosclerosis after kidney transplant: Folic acid antagonists during pregnancy and the risk of birth defects. N Engl J Med. Conversion and retention of pteroylmonoglutamate by jejunum.

Folate status following gastric bypass surgery the great folate mystery. Intestinal transport of zinc and folic acid: Drugs affecting homocysteine metabolism: An iron-regulated ferric reductase associated with the absorption of dietary iron [published online February 1, ]. Iron deficiency anemia [review]. An increased PYY response was consistently described following the consumption of various soluble dietary fibers.

Postprandial PYY clearly increased after the consumption of psyllium-enriched test meals in healthy volunteers [ ]. The consumption of PolyGlycopleX, a novel functional fiber complex manufactured from three dietary fibers to form a highly viscous polysaccharide with high water-holding and gel-forming properties, for 3 weeks resulted in significantly increased fasting PYY levels as compared to the control product in healthy adults [ ].

The direct infusion of short-chain fatty acids into rabbit and rat colons significantly increased PYY secretions [ , ]. The stimulatory effects of short-chain fatty acids on PYY secretions are mainly attributed to a direct interaction between short-chain fatty acids and PYY cells.

In fact, FFA2 also known as GPR43 , the major receptor for short-chain fatty acids, is colocalized with PYY immunoreactive enteroendocrine L cells both in rat ileum and human colon [ , ]. Glucagon-Like Peptide 1 Glucagon-like peptide 1 is cosecreted with PYY from the intestinal L cells, encoded by the proglucagon gene [ ]. It is described with a potent incretin effect, stimulating insulin secretion in a glucose-dependent manner.

Circulating GLP-1 levels rise following nutrient ingestion, in proportion to the energetic content of the meal [ ]. An acute intracerebroventricular administration of GLP-1 to rodents induced a decline in short-term energy intake [ ], and was associated with a reduced body weight following repeated administration [ ].

Similarly, an intravenous infusion of GLP-1 both in normal weight and in obese subjects resulted in a dose-dependent reduction in food intake [ ].

Variable GLP-1 responses to soluble dietary fiber intake were described, whether elevated, inhibited, or unaffected. On the other hand, the ingestion of pasta enriched with a small amount of psyllium fiber 1. Such discrepancies in findings could be attributed to differences in the structures and food sources of ingested soluble fibers and their administered doses. Colonic fermentation appears to be essential in explaining GLP-1 release in response to soluble dietary fibers, despite inconsistent findings.

Though supplementation with fermentable carbohydrates has been consistently associated with increased colonic proglucagon mRNA expression [ — ], only few studies detected increased plasma GLP-1 circulating levels in parallel [ — , — ].

A strong association between postprandial hydrogen production and plasma GLP-1 concentrations was also reported. On the contrary, others have shown no effect of fermentable carbohydrates on circulating GLP-1 levels, whether acutely [ ] or over a short duration of 6 days [ ]. Based on these findings, the duration of supplementation is an important factor to consider when suggesting fermentation as a basis for soluble fibers-induced GLP-1 release. A sufficient time of weeks must be given in order to allow adaptation of the gut microbiota to the additional fermentable carbohydrate within the diet for maximal fermentation to take place [ ] and for GLP-1 levels in circulation to be subsequently affected.

Cholecystokinin Cholecystokinin was among the first hormones shown to modulate food intake [ ]. It is secreted from the I cells of the small intestine in response to food ingestion [ ]. Cholecystokinin circulating levels rise rapidly after a meal, reaching a peak within 15 minutes.

It was found to reduce food intake when infused both in rodents and humans [ , ]. In fact, plasma CCK levels are strongly associated with subjective measurements of satiety in women [ ]. Limited studies described the interaction between soluble dietary fibers and CCK release.

The role of fermentation and more specifically short-chain fatty acids in regulating CCK release is still poorly understood. In pigs, ileal infusion of short-chain fatty acids did not affect CCK circulating levels [ ].

Ghrelin Ghrelin is the only known orexigenic hormone in the gut. It was initially identified as an endogenous ligand for growth hormone secretagogue receptor GH-SR in rat stomach [ ].

Circulating ghrelin levels increase before meals and fall rapidly after eating [ ]. Both central and peripheral administration of ghrelin increased food intake and body weight in rodents [ , ]. Discrepancies in findings could be explained by variations in the physical and chemical properties of ingested soluble fibers, their different administered doses, and the forms of ghrelin being measured in circulation.

Several mechanisms were suggested to explain fiber-induced ghrelin suppression, most importantly fermentation. Such colonic fermentation may reduce ghrelin via increasing circulating PYY levels. Administration of PYY to humans reduced serum ghrelin levels [ ]. In addition to colonic fermentation, other mechanisms were also hypothesized.

A possible inner-gastric pathway may operate through gastric somatostatin, which is released following the consumption of beet fiber in diabetic individuals [ ]. Somatostatin administration decreased ghrelin secretion in rats [ ] and lowered circulating ghrelin levels in humans [ ].

In addition, GLP-1 release in response to soluble fibers is another potential mechanism. Infusion of GLP-1 into isolated rat stomach suppressed ghrelin secretions [ ]. Such satiating capacity appears to be comparable to that of other soluble viscous and fermentable fibers. Short-chain fatty acids affect satiety by primarily modulating the release of various appetite-regulating hormones, including PYY, GLP-1, and ghrelin.

Since research in this area is still limited, such mechanisms necessitate further investigation. Insufficient intake of dietary fiber has been reported worldwide.

However, the estimates of fiber intake are highly variable. Based on the results of the Nationwide Food Consumption Survey, a mean dietary fiber intake of Similarly, a mean daily fiber intake of In contrast, Hallfrisch et al. In Canada, low daily dietary fiber intakes have been also noted. According to Nova Scotia Department of Health [ ], the mean dietary fiber intake was estimated to be Similarly, in a more recent study on healthy Canadian adolescent males, a median dietary fiber intake of In Europe, the estimated national values for dietary fiber intake were found to fall within a narrower range: Thus, fiber intakes worldwide are well below the recommended levels despite the recommendations of several health organizations to increase the consumption of foods with high fiber content.

The introduction of fiber into traditional and processed foods provides one method by which to increase fiber intake [ 81 ]. The best-known examples of functional foods are fermented milks and yoghurts. Several fiber-fortified dairy products are now appearing in market, with inulin being a popular fiber source for such products due to its combined nutritional and technological characteristics [ — ].

Beta glucan is commonly used as a functional ingredient in foods as it is readily available as a byproduct of oat and barley milling and it also provides physiological benefits that are supported by health claims in many jurisdictions. This polysaccharide is also used as a food ingredient in the form of hydrocolloids [ , ] or as powder using microparticulation [ ].

Oats have been frequently used as an additive in the preparation of cereal products, decreasing water activity and subsequently prolonging durability [ 81 ].

Several oat-based breakfast cereals have experienced great success in the market. These products are readily accepted by consumers. The incorporation of oats into baking products, such as bread, baked goods, and dough, has been widely tested [ 81 ]. Oats are also used as additives in the production of yogurts with increased amount of fiber [ 81 ].

Fiber addition increased the solidity ratio and texture of unsweetened yogurts, accelerated their acidification rate, and increased their viscosity [ ].

Beta glucans selectively support the growth of Lactobacilli and Bifidobacteria, both of them being antagonists to pathogenic bacteria in the digestive system [ 12 , ]. Due to its ability to mimic fat characteristics, oat fiber is one of the most effective ingredients in making low-fat meat products. It can be used to offset the poor quality associated with low-fat beef burgers [ ] as well as low-fat sausages [ ].

One of the major challenges faced by the functional food industry is developing functional foods with an acceptable taste to the average consumer [ ]. Incorporating significant quantities of fiber into food products constitutes a technological challenge due to the possible deleterious effects on textural quality. The addition of fibers may contribute to modifications in the texture, sensory characteristics, and shelf-life of foods due to their water-binding capacity, gel-forming ability, fat mimetic, antisticking, anticlumping, texturising, and thickening effects [ , ].

Blackcurrant flavored oat milk 0. In addition, the sensory quality of a flavored oat-based fermented product containing 0. In contrast, when consumed over 5 weeks, oat-based fermented dairy products 0. Food processing alters the physical, chemical, and physiologic characteristics of dietary fibers. These reductions in molecular weight increase with the mixing and fermentation time of the dough [ ].

Anderson declare that there is no conflict of interests. Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism. Indexed in Web of Science. Subscribe to Table of Contents Alerts. Table of Contents Alerts. Abstract Despite the lack of international agreement regarding the definition and classification of fiber, there is established evidence on the role of dietary fibers in obesity and metabolic syndrome.

Introduction Obesity has reached global epidemic proportions with more than one billion adults affected by this chronic disorder [ 1 ]. Characteristics, Definitions, Classifications, and Analytical Methods Scientific and regulatory bodies around the world define fiber differently. Characteristics of Dietary Fibers Four categories of fiber definitions have been identified [ 26 ], each of which addresses a different characteristic of fiber.

Definitions of Dietary Fibers The most recent definitions for fiber generally address at least one of four characteristics: Categorization of recent definitions of fiber based on whether or not a distinction in dietary fiber source is made.

References World Health Organization: View at Google Scholar A. National supply and disposition of grains in Canada, to —Barley, http: National supply and disposition of grains in Canada, to —Oats, http: Countries by commodity, http: View at Google Scholar B. View at Google Scholar K. View at Google Scholar J. View at Google Scholar L. View at Google Scholar P. View at Google Scholar H. De La Perrière, M. Poulter, Choon Lan Chang, A. View at Google Scholar M. Alfalfa seed products may cause reactions that are similar to the autoimmune disease called lupus erythematosus.

Alfalfa might also cause some people's skin to become extra sensitive to the sun. As noted above , raw unsprouted alfalfa has toxic effects in primates, including humans, which can result in lupus-like symptoms and other immunological diseases in susceptible individuals, [] [] [] US NIH calls out special precautions and warnings for the following: US NIH warns that alfalfa may interact with herbs and supplements associated with the following: Refer to [] for the most current information and details.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses of "Alfalfa", see Alfalfa disambiguation. For other uses of "Lucerne", see Lucerne disambiguation. Lucerne is not to be confused with lupin , another leguminous fodder crop that looks somewhat similar. Medicago afganica Bordere Vassilcz. Medicago polia Brand Vassilcz. Medicago praesativa Sinskaya Medicago rivularis Vassilcz.

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