Excretory system

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They excrete nitrogen in the form of…. Physiology A, edited by C. However, as excretion involves several functions that are only superficially related, it is not usually used in more formal classifications of anatomy or function. Good Guy or Bad Guy? It must find food, avoid predators, and participate in all other aspects of free-living existence while it completes its embryonic development and growth. Changes that occur in caecilians—the closure of the gill slit, the degeneration of the caudal fin, and the development of a tentacle and skin glands—are also minor.

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Like almost all birds, the domestic fowl does not have a bladder as is found in most mammals and amphibians. This re-absorbed water is available for use by the bird and, to some extent, offsets the limited ability of birds to concentrate their urine as efficiently as mammals. The urine is in a thick pasty form with a very low water content but high in uric acid from nitrogen metabolism.

It is usually passed as a paste and is deposited as a whitish or cream cap on some faecal stools. When the kidneys are not functioning as efficiently as normal, or sometimes when a very high protein diet is provided, there will be large quantities of uric acid in the blood and the system may be unable to cope. The kidney tubules are likely to swell with accumulated urate deposits and when this happens, the white lines are clearly visible on the surface of the kidneys.

The accumulation may lead to damage of the kidney cells which leads to nephritis. Medical Case Management is a collaborative process that facilitates recommended treatment plans to assure the appropriate medical care is provided to disabled, ill or injured individuals.

It is a role frequently overseen by patient advocates. Respite is a temporary relief from harm or discomfort. The act of reprieving; postponing or remitting punishment.

A pause for relaxation. Quality of Life and Comfort - Care Recovery is to return to an original state. Gradual healing through rest after sickness or injury. The act of regaining or saving something lost or in danger of becoming lost. Cure is the end of a medical condition that helps end a person's sufferings.

It may also refer to the state of being healed, or cured or make healthy again. Physiological Homeostasis is the tendency of the body to maintain critical physiological parameters e. Health is feeling good and strong in the body and mind , and being free from disease or pain. Health is the level of functional and metabolic efficiency of a living organism. In humans it is the ability of individuals or communities to adapt and self-manage when facing physical, mental, psychological and social changes with environment.

A state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity or weakness. Wellness - Healthcare Public Health is the science and art of preventing disease, prolonging life and promoting human health through organized efforts and informed choices of society, organizations, public and private, communities and individuals.

Population Health has been defined as "the health outcomes of a group of individuals, including the distribution of such outcomes within the group". It is an approach to health that aims to improve the health of an entire human population. The term adolescent and young people are often used interchangeably, as are the terms Adolescent Health and Youth Health. Young people's health is often complex and requires a comprehensive, biopsychosocial approach.

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Medical practice properly requires both a detailed knowledge of the academic disciplines such as anatomy and physiology underlying diseases and their treatment—the science of medicine—and also a decent competence in its applied practice—the art or craft of medicine.

National Rural Health Association states that rural areas could be short 45, doctors by And other trade groups warn those numbers of unfilled positions could loom even larger. Since , more than 70 rural hospitals have closed. Nurse care giving Early Historical Doctors: A health professional may operate within all branches of health care, including medicine, surgery, dentistry, midwifery, pharmacy, psychology, nursing or allied health professions.

Errors made by Doctors Specialist in medicine is a branch of medical practice. After completing medical school, physicians or surgeons usually further their medical education in a specific specialty of medicine by completing a multiple year residency to become a medical specialist Medical Specialists webmd More Specialties Board Certification is the process by which a physician or other professional in the United States demonstrates a mastery of basic knowledge and skills through written, practical, or simulator-based testing.

Accreditation Medicine Categories wiki Medicine Categories wiki Medical Terminology is language used to precisely describe the human body including its components, processes, conditions affecting it, and procedures performed upon in.

It is to be used in the field of medicine. Notable aspects of medical terminology include the use of Latin terms and regular morphology, with the same suffixes and prefixes use quite consistently for a particular meaning. This regular morphology means that once reasonable number of morphemes are learned it becomes easy to understand very precise terms build up from these morphemes.

A lot of medical language is anatomical terminology, concerning itself with the names of various parts of the body. Medical Terms Definitions Doctor Exams Physical Examination is the process by which a medical professional investigates the body of a patient for signs of disease. It generally follows the taking of the medical history—an account of the symptoms as experienced by the patient. Together with the medical history, the physical examination aids in determining the correct diagnosis and devising the treatment plan.

This data then becomes part of the medical record. Examine is to consider in detail and subject to an analysis in order to discover essential features or meaning. Observe , check out, and look over carefully or inspect. Question thoroughly and closely. Put to the test , as for its quality, or give experimental use to. Reference Range is the range of values for a physiologic measurement in healthy persons for example, the amount of creatinine in the blood, or the partial pressure of oxygen.

It is a basis for comparison a frame of reference for a physician or other health professional to interpret a set of test results for a particular patient.

Some important reference ranges in medicine are reference ranges for blood tests and reference ranges for urine tests. Baseline Medical History is information gained by a physician by asking specific questions , either of the patient or of other people who know the person and can give suitable information in this case, it is sometimes called heteroanamnesis , with the aim of obtaining information useful in formulating a diagnosis and providing medical care to the patient.

The medically relevant complaints reported by the patient or others familiar with the patient are referred to as symptoms, in contrast with clinical signs, which are ascertained by direct examination on the part of medical personnel.

Most health encounters will result in some form of history being taken Diagnostic Test or Medical Test is a kind of medical procedure performed to detect, diagnose, or monitor diseases, disease processes, susceptibility, and determine a course of treatment. It is related to clinical chemistry and molecular diagnostics, and the procedures are typically performed in a medical laboratory. Vitals are body functions essential for life. Diagnosis is the identification of the nature and cause of a certain phenomenon.

Medical Diagnosis is the process of determining which disease or condition explains a person's symptoms and signs. Testing and Examinations - Software Testing Assessment Errors observation flaws Monitoring medicine is the observation of a disease, condition or one or several medical parameters over time.

Transmitting data from a monitor to a distant monitoring station is known as telemetry or biotelemetry. Bioinformatics are methods and software tools for understanding biological data. Body Burden Test Triage is the process of determining the priority of patients' treatments based on the severity of their condition.

Endopat non-invasive assessment of Endothelial Dysfunction arterial health , is a functional test for early detection of underlying disease progression.

Problem solving is a skill that everyone should master. Biopsy is a medical test commonly performed by a surgeon, interventional radiologist, or an interventional cardiologist involving extraction of sample cells or tissues for examination to determine the presence or extent of a disease. Pathology is a significant component of the causal study of disease and a major field in modern medicine and diagnosis. Autopsy is a highly specialized surgical procedure that consists of a thorough examination of a corpse by dissection to determine the cause and manner of death and to evaluate any disease or injury that may be present.

It is usually performed by a specialized medical doctor called a pathologist. Also known as a post-mortem examination, obduction, necropsy, or autopsia cadaverum. Diagnostic Tests - Advanced Sensors Biomarker is a measurable indicator of the severity or presence of some disease state. More generally a biomarker is anything that can be used as an indicator of a particular disease state or some other physiological state of an organism.

It is then secreted within the small intestine where it helps to emulsify fats in the same manner as a soap. Bile also contains bilirubin , which is a waste product. Bile salts can be considered waste that is useful for the body given that they have a role in fat absorption from the stomach. They are excreted from the liver and along with blood flow they help to form the shape of the liver where they are excreted.

For instance, if biliary drainage is impaired than that part of the liver will end up wasting away. Biliary obstruction is typically due to masses blocking the ducts of the system such as tumors. The consequences of this depend on the site of blockage and how long it goes on for. There is inflammation of the ducts due to the irritation from the bile acids and this can cause infections.

If rupture of the duct takes place it is very traumatic and even fatal. Within the kidney, blood first passes through the afferent artery to the capillary formation called a glomerulus and is collected in the Bowman's capsule , which filters the blood from its contents—primarily food and wastes. After the filtration process, the blood then returns to collect the food nutrients it needs, while the wastes pass into the collecting duct, to the renal pelvis, and to the ureter, and are then secreted out of the body via the urinary bladder.

When substances are not properly dissolved, they have the ability to build up, and form these kidney stones. These stones are most commonly made up of substances such as calcium, cystine, oxalate, and uric acid, as these are the substances that normally would dissolve within the urine.

When they do not dissolve correctly and further build up, they will commonly lodge themselves in the urinary tract and in this case, are usually small enough to pass through urine. In extreme situations, however, these stones may lodge themselves within the tube that connects the kidney and the bladder, called the ureter. In this case, they become very large in size and will most likely cause great pain, bleeding, and possibly even block the flow of urine.

In those extreme situations, in which kidney stones are too large to pass on their own, patients may seek removal. Most of these treatments involving kidney stone removal are done by a urologist; a physician who specializes in the organs of the Urinary system. Larger, more serious cases may demand Cystoscopy, Ureteroscopy, or Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy, in which the doctor will use a viewing tool or camera to locate the stone, and based on the size or situation, may either chose to continue with surgical removal, or use the shock wave lithotripsy treatment.

Once the kidney stone s are successfully eliminated, the urologist will commonly suggest medication to prevent future recurrences. Pyelonephritis is a type of urinary tract infection that occurs when bacteria enters the body through the urinary tract.

It causes an inflammation of the renal parenchyma, calyces, and pelvis. In acute pyelonephritis, the patient experiences high fever, abdominal pain and pain while passing urine.

Treatment for acute pyelonephritis is provided via antibiotics and an extensive urological investigation is conducted to find any abnormalities and prevent recurrence.

In chronic pyelonephritis, patients experience persistent abdominal and flank pain, high fever, decreased appetite, weight loss, urinary tract symptoms and blood in the urine. Chronic pyelonephritis can also lead to scarring of the renal parenchyma caused by recurrent kidney infections.

Xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis is an unusual form of chronic pyelonephritis. It results in severe destruction of the kidney and causes granulomatous abscess formation. Patients infected with Xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis experience recurrent fevers, anemia , kidney stones and loss of function in the affected kidney.

A urine culture and antibiotics sensitivity test is issued for patients who are believed to have pyelonephritis. Since most cases of pyelonephritis are caused from bacterial infections, antibiotics are a common treatment option.

Depending on the species of the infecting organism and the antibiotics sensitivity profile of the organism, treatments may include fluoroquinolones , cephalosporins , aminoglycosides , or trimethoprim individually or in combination. Nephrectomy is the most common surgical treatment for a majority of cases invloving xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis. In men, roughly cases per 10, are treated as outpatients and 1 in 10, cases require admission to the hospital.

In women, approximately in 10, cases are treated as outpatients and cases are admitted to a hospital. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. April Learn how and when to remove this template message. This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. Retrieved 25 December Costal aspiration as a key feature of amniotes" PDF.